Skip to main content

Full text of "Two European arachnids new to the United States."

See other formats

\3 Biodiversity 

Entomological news. 

[Philadelphia]American Entomological Society,1925- 

V. 74 1963: 
Page(s): Page 208, Page 209, Page 210 

Contributed by: Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
Sponsored by: Smithsonian 

Generated 21 February 201 1 1 :42 PM 

This page intentionally left blank. 


species (chilensis and distinguendus) nest inconspicuously In 
or under rotted wood as other species do at the northern limit. 
In summary, Argentina may be commended to anyone inter- 
ested in ants, both for the solid foundation already laid down 
by previous workers and for the nature of its fauna. 

Two European Arachnids New to the United States 

William B. Much more, Department of Biology, 

University of Rochester 

It is well known that a number of European animals have be- 
come established in North America. Seaports such as New 
York, Halifax, St, John's and Seattle are known to have con- 
siderable populations of such exotics in their environs (cf. 
Lindroth, 1957), It has also become obvious in recent years 
that the inland city of Rochester, New York, has been a favor- 
able locality for the establishment of European invertebrate ani- 
mals, including the snail, Cepaea nemoralis (cf, Blakeslee, 
1945) ; the chilopod, Chaetcchelene vesuviaim (cL Crabill, 
1955) ; various terrestrial isopods (cf, Muchniore, 1957); two 
small beetles (cf. Cooper, 1961, 1962) ; and the European hor- 
net, Vespa crabro (personal observation). Recently, another 
remarkable introduction has been discovered in the vicinity of 
Rochester, namely the opilionid, Trogulus tricarinatus Linne 
(Opiliones : Trogulidae), 

During the course of routine Berlese funnel separations in 
search of pseiidoscorpions and terrestrial isopods, this distinc- 
tive arachnid was found in a sample taken on April 2S T 1962 
from beneath a log in deciduous woodland in Ellison Park, 
Monroe County, New York. With the aid of Roewer (1923) 
the specimen was identified as an adult of Trogulus tricarinatus, 
a species native to south and central Europe, and also found in 
southern England (Bristowe, 1949). It was then sent to Prof. 
C. J. Goodnight who was good enough to check the identification. 
Subsequently four more specimens were collected in Ellison 
Park, On May 26 ? 1962 an adult and a nymph were taken 


from beneath the original log. The adult, like the first one 
found, is about 6 mm long and nearly black in color, apparently 
a mature individual that had survived the winter. The nymph 
is about 3 mm long and cream colored, and appears to be a 
third instar, according to Pabst (1953). On July 22, 1962 two 
adults were recovered from beneath a log some 500 feet from 
the first location. Slightly less than 6 mm long and light tan 
in color, these had probably hatched in the spring of 1962 and 
had become adult but not fully colored by the date of collection. 
With the trogulids were found a number of other invertebrates, 
including the uncommon trichoniscid isopod, Hylonisctts ripa- 
rim, which is also native to central Europe (cf. Muchmore, 
1957). It seems obvious from these facts that the specimens of 
T. irkarinatits were part of a population that has in some way 
been introduced and has found the Rochester area hospitable 
enough to allow its establishment. 

It is not certain how and when the introduction of these 
immigrants might have occurred. There is, however, a nursery 
about a mile away from the collection site and nearby there is 
a well-travelled road, along which trash from human habitations 
has been dumped at various times. This situation is reminiscent 
of that in which I found H. riparius in Onondaga County, New 
York (ci 1957, p. 79), It is probable, therefore, that the 
exotics were introduced along with nursery stock into the 
vicinity of the park and then transferred to their present loca- 
tion along with yard or garden refuse. 

There have been suggestions that the introduction of these 
animals has been relatively recent, on the assumption that C. R. 
Crosby and S. C. Bishop, who collected arachnids intensively in 
this area, certainly would not have overlooked so unusual a 
creature as Trogulus. I can, however, find no record in the 
works of these arachuologists of their having collected in or 
near Ellison Park (cf. esp. Bishop, 1949). If the population oc- 
cupies only a relatively small area, as is likely, it could easily 
have been by-passed by even the most expert collector. It is 
not inconceivable that many similar, undiscovered populations 
of this and other European invertebrates exist elsewhere in the 
United States, 


It is appropriate here to mention also the occurrence in 
Rochester of the central European pseudoscorpion, Ron cits 
lubricus ■ L. Koch (Chelonethida : Neobisiidae) (cf. Beier, 1932). 
The first specimen was taken in the greenhouse of the Univer- 
sity of Rochester on June 27, 1956, It was on the underside of a 
board partially embedded in the earth under a greenhouse bench. 
Subsequently, other specimens were found under boards or flats 
in the same room, in company, at various times, with a variety 
of greenhouse inhabitants, including isopods, mites, spiders, 
centipedes, millipedes, collembola and snails. The only other 
pseudoscorpion observed in the greenhouse has been the com- 
mon, introduced European species, Chthoniiis tetrachelafus 
Preyssler. On one occasion a specimen of R. lubricus was dis- 
covered with an oribatid mite (Oribotriiia?) in its chelicerae, 
obviously feeding. 

Roncus lubricus was observed in the greenhouse from time to 
time until June, 1958. Altogether four specimens (2 males and 
2 females) were collected and perhaps another four or five 
were seen. The population then disappeared, apparently eradi- 
cated, along with undesirable sowbugs and slugs, by the con- 
tinued heavy application of pesticides. 

This species, unlike C. tetrachelafus, has never been en- 
countered outside the greenhouse and is, so far as we know now, 
not a naturalized resident in this country. 


Beier, M„ 1932, Tierreich 57: 1-258. 

Bishop, S, C, 1949. Proc. Rochester Acad. Sci. 9: 159-235, 

Blakeslee, C L., 1945. Nautilus 59 : 44^47. 

Bristowe, W. S., 1949. J. Anim. EcoL 18: 100-114. 

Cooper, K, W„ 1961- Ent. News 72: 90-92. 

, 1962. Ent. News 73: 187-190. 

Crabill, R, E„ 1955. Ent. News 66: 248-249. 

Lindroth, C H., 1957. The Faunal connections between Europe and 

North America. Wiley, New York. 344 p. 
Muchmore, W. B«, 1957. J, Washington Acad. Sci. 47; 78-83, 
Pabst, W., 1953. Zool. Jahrb. AM, f. Syst 82: 1-46. 
Roewer, C. F., 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde. Gustav Fischer, 

Jena. 1116 p.